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HISTORY

The Immunoscore initial article has been published in Science in 2006 (Galon et al. Science 2006). It followed the article published in New Engl J Med analyzing the immune cell infiltration and tumor microenvironment in large cohorts of colorectal cancer patients (Pages et al. New Engl J Med 2005).

The Immune Contexture, describing the key immune elements associated with cancer patient survival, were initially published in Cancer Research in 2007 (Galon et al. Cancer Res 2007). More details about the immune contexture can be found in Fridman et al. Nat Cancer Rev 2012.

The Immunoscore, as a prognostic marker in early-stage (Stage I/II) patients was first describe in J Clin Oncol (Pages et al. J Clin Oncol 2009).

The major clinical impact of the Immunoscore, and the superiority of the Immunoscore over the AJCC/UICC-TNM classification - "TNM staging in colorectal cancer: T is for T cell and M is for Memory" - was published in J Clin Oncol (Mlecnik et al. J Clin Oncol 2011).

Several reviews highlighted the clinical importance of the immune score: Fridman et al. Nat Rev Cancer 2012, Mlecnik et al. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2011, Galon et al. Cancer Res 2007.



The Immunoscore® is a trademark of INSERM (2012-08-10).